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1001页:B006 消防员的战术

发布时间:2019-06-05点击量:98

B006 Fire Officers Tactics

图片内容:

Ever wonder if we take our job a little too seriously?

这么玩是不是有点过了?

双语:

Put the fire out if you can, but if that is not possible with the personnel at hand, at least protect the means of egress, so that people can escape and rescuers can enter.

尽你所能灭火,如果人手短缺灭不了,那就尽可能保证出入口,这样里面的人有路可逃,消防员也有内攻的途径。

This still places rescue as the highest priority; it just uses a different method to conduct it.

殊途同归,这个方案依旧视救人为最高优先级。

The New York City Fire Department (FDNY) has an old saying that has been proven time and time again—engine members love it, and ladder members (truckies) hate it—but it’s true: More lives have been saved by properly positioned and operated hoselines than by all other means! That is the guiding principle behind the next concept.

纽约消防局有句水罐车组非常喜欢的老话,“正确选择水枪阵地位置能够挽救更多生命”,虽然云梯车组对这句话并不怎么认同,但这却是事实。概念02的指导原则即基于此。

Concept 02

概念02

When you don’t have sufficient personnel to perform all of the needed tasks, first perform those that protect the greatest number of human lives (fig. 1–1).

人手不足时,优先保护大多数。(图1-1)

Although most firefighters would have a poor opinion of anyone who might suggest that they play God, the fact is that firefighters must occasionally make some hard choices between life and death.

消防员经常需要在火场上决断生死,这种“扮演上帝”的感觉其实并不好受。

Sometimes conditions are such that people are going to die no matter what actions you take.

有些情况下,无论消防员做什么,都不能避免被困人员死亡。

Although this is surely a stressful, disheartening situation, firefighters must realize that additional lives may hang in the balance, requiring quick action based on rational decisions.

见死不救会造成的巨大压力和负面情绪,但是消防员必须意识到,可能还有更多的被困者等待救援,快速准确的行动需要不受感性影响的理性决策。

I recall responding to a multiple alarm fire at which two 2?-story wood-frame houses were fully involved on arrival.

我记得以前参与扑救的一场大型火灾,两栋两层半木框架房屋在我到达现场时已经进入全面燃烧阶段。

Fire was already extending to two additional wood-frame houses on the left side of the fire, as well as to a six-story, nonfireproof apartment building on the right.

着火建筑左边两栋同类建筑已经被波及,右边一栋六层无防火措施的公寓楼也受到了火势的影响。

All five buildings were fully occupied, and coupled with the lateness of the hour, all presented high life hazards.

五栋建筑都住满了人,火灾发生时间又是深夜,楼内住户危在旦夕。

The first engine and ladder to arrive, both staffed by an officer and five firefighters, faced a difficult decision—where to operate first.

第一到场是一辆水罐车和一辆云梯车,每车都有一名指挥和五名消防员,他们面临一个艰难的抉择—先救哪边?

The two frame exposures were definitely a great hazard, but so was the apartment house.

左边受到火势波及的木框架房屋肯定很危险,但右边的公寓房也不安全。

The decision was made to concentrate on protecting that building, since it was home to 45 or 50 families.

最后指挥员决定优先保护右边的公寓楼,因为那栋楼里有40-50户人家。

The two frame exposures received attention next, with a single outside line used in a holding action.

然后才轮到那两栋木结构,在建筑外部布置了一组支线防御火势侵袭。

Although the four families in these two buildings were severely threatened, the possible loss of more than 150 or 160 people in the apartment building far outweighed their possible loss.

虽然左边木结构房屋里的四户人家险些丧命,但相比公寓楼内的150-160人的安全来说,还可以接受吧。

The occupants of the two original fire buildings received the lowest priority, since the buildings were solid flame from cellar to ridgepole.

由于火势已经穿顶,两栋着火建筑获得的关注度最低。

The word savable should be used in discussions of life hazards. A person in a room that is filled with fire isn’t savable.

在讨论生命受到威胁程度的时候可以用“有救”这个词,火势已经充分发展的房间里的人是“没救”的。

In recent years, there has been a good deal of emphasis on survivability profiling of buildings, in an attempt to reduce the amount of risk that firefighters engage in at structure fires and ultimately to reduce the number of needless firefighter fatalities.

近年来,为了降低消防员在建筑火灾中遭遇的风险并最终减少不必要的火场殉职,消防员在建筑物内的生存可能性分析获得了高度重视。

After all, human life takes precedence over all other concerns, and that includes firefighters’ lives.

毕竟,人命关天,也包括消防员的命。

This issue is extremely complicated and not easy to put in a one-line guide, beyond the fact that a person in a room that is filled with fire isn’t savable.

这一课题的复杂程度超乎想象,一两句话可说不清楚。

That does not mean that a person in a heavily involved building is not savable.

火势很大并不意味着被困者一定不可救。

It depends on where the person is in relation to the fire.

还取决于人和火之间的相对状态。

I have seen numerous people survive in heavily involved buildings, saved by such things as a closed door between them and the fire, or an open window in the room they are in (fig. 1–2).

有时是人与火之间的一扇门,有时是房间里一扇窗,都可以帮助被困人员成功获救。(图1-2)

Fig. 1–2. At first glance, it might seem that there was no chance of survivors in this apparently fully involved structure.

1-2 乍一看,这种火势已经充分发展的火场可能不会有幸存者。

Given advances in the treatment of smoke inhalation, particularly the use hydrogen cyanide antidotes and hyperbaric oxygen therapy, it is important that we don’t write off civilians too early.

有鉴于吸入烟气治疗方法的发展,特别是氰化氢解毒剂和高压氧仓疗法的普及,我们不要急着下结论。

There is a huge difference between “smoked” and “roasted.” In my book, they are not beyond attempting to reach unless they are “roasted.”

“烟熏”和“炙烤”的区别还是很大的,在我的概念里,除非已经处于“炙烤”状态,否则被困者都还有的救。

If they are in a room full of flame, they are dead. If they are in a room with smoke, even the heaviest smoke, they may be savable (fig. 1–3).

房间里全是火妥妥的必死无疑,但如果只是烟,哪怕烟气很浓,被困者可能还是有救的。

Fig. 1–3. Examination of the rear of the building, however, showed that there were several rooms with closed doors that offered shelter to the trapped occupants. Several children were in fact removed alive from this home. Do not get so enamored with survivability profiling as to write people off without giving them a chance.

1-3 通过搜索建筑物后部发现,数个房门紧闭的房间为住户提供了庇护,几名小孩成功获救。所以,不要急于下结论,给被困者生存的机会。

It will be your call.

这取决于你。

往期文章:

1001页:B001消防员的战术
1001页:A003 消防建筑施工
1001页:B003 消防员的战术
1001页:A004 消防建筑施工
1001页:B004消防员的战术
1001页:A005 消防建筑施工
1001页:B005 消防员的战术

1001页:A006 消防建筑施工

来源:52号消防站
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